Work Teams

Interdependent group of people trying to achieve a common outcome

One person is not enough

Meso level of analysis

Team halo effect

  • Level of analysis
    • Individual (micro)
    • Team (meso)
    • Organizational (macro)
  • Types of teams
    • Problem-resolution teams
      • purpose: solving ongoing problems
      • Ex. CDC diagnostic team & epidemics
    • Creative teams
      • Purpose: innovation, exploring possibilities
      • IPOD team at apple
    • Tactical teams
      • Purpose: executing a well-defined plan
      • Memphis SWAT
    • Ad hoc teams
      • Purpose: solve a specific problem and absolves when it is solved
      • Multi-team systems
  • Principles of teamwork
    • Members provide feedback to and accept it from one another
    • The willingness, preparedness, and proclivity to back fellow members up during operations
    • Members’ collectively viewing themselves as a group whose success depends on their interaction
    • Fostering within-team interdependence
    • Team leadership makes a difference with respect to the performance of the team
  • Team structure
    • Diversity in teams
      • differences in other team members
    • Information diversity
      • differences in knowledge and cognitive resources of team members
    • Value diversity
      • fundamental differences among people with regard to tastes, preferences, goals and interests
  • Roles in teams
    • Leadership Functions
      • Leader
      • Shaper
        • influences the way that the team’s effort is applied, directing attention to the setting of objectives and priorities
    • Work Producers
      • Worker
        • gets things done
      • Creator
        • advances new ideas and strategies with special attention to major issues and addressing new ways to do things
      • Completer-finisher
        • searches for aspects of work that need more than usual degree of attention and maintains sense of urgency in team
    • Internal team maintenance
      • Monitor-evaluator
        • analyzes problems and suggestions so team stays focused on task
        • critic
      • Team facilitator
        • supports team members in their strengths, helps compensate for the weaknesses, and improves communication between members by fostering team spirit
        • Liaison to people/resources outside the team
      • Resource investigator
  • Team processes
    • Socialization
      • Process of ongoing mutual adjustment
      • Three psychological concepts of the socialization process
        • Evaluation
          • attempts by team and individual to assess and maximize each other’s values
        • Commitment
          • sense of loyalty, union, and connection between individuals and teams
        • Role transition
          • occurs when commitment reaches a certain level
  • Five phases of team membership
    • Investigation
      • team searches for individuals who can contribute to the achievement of team goals
    • Socialization
      • individual assimilates into team and team accommodates itself to individual
    • Maintenance
      • both parties try to maximize their respective needs
      • achievement of team
      • satisfaction of individual
    • Re-socialization
      • When commitment weakens
      • team and individual try again to influence each other so that the team’s needs are more likely to be satisfied
    • Remembrance
      • when resocialization is unsuccessful
      • team remembers individuals contributions to the team
      • and individual recalls his experiences
  • Interpersonal processes in teams (influences team performance)
    • Communication
      • Needs to be consistent
    • Conflict
      • unavoidable
      • Beneficial (want) v. competitive (avoid) conflict
    • Cohesion
      • members feel attached to the team and want to stay in it
    • Trust
      • The belief that even though you have no control over how your team member will behave, you believe, trust and have faith in your team members will behave in a way that benefits the team
    • Shared mental models
      • Similar approach to acquiring, storing, and using information
      • helps members predict and understand teammate
      • Four categories of what is shared
        • Task-specific knowledge
        • Task-related knowledge
        • Knowledge of teammate
        • Attitudes and beliefs
      • Groupthink
        • Individual members don’t voice differing opinions because they feel they have a good thing going
        • Nazi Germany
    • Team mentality
      • The whole team listens and comes together to form decision
  • Decision-making in teams
    • Multilevel theory of team decision-making
      • Team informity
        • how well informed the team is on the issues they must address
      • Staff validity
        • average individual team member’s abilities to make accurate decisions
      • Dyadic sensitivity
        • Leaders ability to weigh certain opinions more than others based on individuals knowledge
    • Similar to individual performance but additional factors influence as well (group vs. individual rewards).
      • Social loafing
        • Free-riding
      • Sucker effect
        • Not wanting to contribute more than other members. Doesn’t want to do all the work
      • Felt Dispensability
        • feeling of being dispensable
      • Peer appraisals
  • Five social skills critical for team members
    • Gain the group acceptance
    • Increase group solidarity
    • Be aware of the group consciousness
    • Share the group identification
    • Manage other’s impressions of him/her
  • Personnel selection for teams
    • Identifying the best mix of personnel for effective team performance
    • Task work skills v. teamwork skills
  • Team training
    • Foster common ways for team members to analyze info and make decisions
      • Thinking
      • Doing
      • Feeling
    • teams not located in same place
    • Virtual environment
    • Three characteristics of virtual teams
      • Electronic communication
      • Geographical dispersion
      • Synchronous & asynchronous interaction
    • Virtual worker & virtual manager