Relatively permanent change in behavior or behavior potential that results from experience.
Discovered classical conditioning while studying dogs saliva in 1927. Found he didn’t have to put food in dogs mouth after while to get saliva.
Something + Food = Salivation
Initially, Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) (food) elicits salivation, but Conditioned Stimulus (CS) (tone) does not.
CS is paired with UCS over time.
CS alone elicits salivation. (No food is needed to elicit salivation. Ringing bell gives desired response.)
An unlearned complex behavior pattern (building a web).
Humans have unlearned reflexive behavior but no instincts.
Critical Period is the period of time after birth when an instinct kicks in. Baby ducks believe the first thing that moves near them is their mother.
A behavior that is unlearned and not complex. (Feeling something hot.)
Classical conditioning is done at the reflexive level. Neutral stimulus is paired with the unconditioned stimulus to elicit the unconditioned response. After while, neutral stimulus elicits the unconditioned response without presence of unconditioned stimulus. The neutral stimulus is now the conditioned stimulus and the unconditioned response is now the conditioned response.
Involves the temporal relationship between two stimuli
Involves simple reflexive response
The response does not have an effect on the outcome
Classical Conditioning Paradigm
Unconditioned stimulus (UCS) → unconditioned response
Conditioned stimulus (CS) + unconditioned stimulus (UCS) → unconditioned response
Conditioned stimulus → conditional response
In psychology, a lot of emotions are classically conditioned.
the progressive increase in strength of a conditioned response with presentation of CS and UCS.
the progressive decrease in strength in a previously conditioned response with presentation of the CS only.
the recurrence of a previously extinguished response after a period of rest. The recurrence is not as strong as the initial acquisition.
Speaking in public – audience is cs and there is not ucs
If you want to get over it, you have to speak in public. If you won’t do that, you can start by just standing in front a large group of people.
when a response classically conditioned to a particular cs will be elicited by a similar cs.
Instrumental Learning (operative learning)
Involves the relationship between a response and the stimulus that follows
The response has an effect on the outcome
Thorndike’s Puzzle Box (Cat, string, door open, food outside)
Trial and error learning (Cat takes time to pull string)
Thorndike’s “law of effect”
If behavior is followed by a reward it will increase the probability that the behavior will occur again. If the behavior is followed by a negative it will decrease the probability that the behavior will occur again.
What causes behavior?
The Behaviorist’s perspective
Behavior is determined by its natural and probably consequences.
Skinner: “Selection by consequences”
No free will.
In other words….Behavior is motivated by the perceived events and conditions that follow it. Importance of “perceieved”
Example: The TN lottery (a tax on the stupid)
A – B – C Model
persons, places, things, or events occurring before a behavior that encourage a person to perform a behavior.
only work when they signal consequences.
the events that follow behavior and change the probability that the behavior will occur again.
Behaviorist believe that consequences are what determine behavior.
The problem with Humanism
Humanism = people believe that people grow towards perfection
Implication = an over-emphasis on antecedents and under-emphasis on consequences.
Positive/Negative = P/N
Immediate/In the Future = I/F
Certain/Uncertain = C/U
The most effective consequences are PIC and NIC. The least effective consequences are NFU and PFU.
Never ask someone why they did something. Ask what happens to someone when they do something.
If you can’t enforce consequences you are NOT the consequence manager.
Past experiences with rewards and punishments help determine ones behavior.
Operant Chamber/Skinner box
(rewarding partially correct behavior)
What does it mean to be responsible for your behavior?
Important Dimensions of Consequences
Magnitude – has to be something worthwhile
Schedules of Reinforcements
Continuous reinforcement (CFR)
everytime you do it, you get rewarded
Intermittent reinforcement (INT)
don’t reward every response
Types of Intermittent reinforcement
Fixed Ratio (FR)
Fixed Interval (FV)
Variable Ratio (VR)
Variable Interval (VI)
too much or too little VR or VI
What is required for modeling? (The Model, a conducive motivational state, and an opportunity)